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One of the major international security concerns that surfaced in the post-World War II period was the emergence and evolution of international terrorism. The dominant theme in the evolution of this threat has been anti-American terrorism. No other country in the world has had its overseas interests subjected to the level, lethality, diversity, and geographic scope of international terrorist activity than the United States. This four-volume work recounts the development of this threat through 12 US presidential administrations over a 70-year period. It assesses the terrorist threat in the US and overseas and how the government has responded with counter-terrorism policies, strategies, programs, organizations, legislation, international conventions, executive orders, special operations units, and actions. The evolution of the field of terrorism in academia, think tanks, institutes, and the private sector over these 12 administrations is also chronicled.
Volume I examined the policies and actions in the Eisenhower, Kennedy, and Johnson administrations that contributed to the creation of anti-American grievances which in turn fueled the rise of anti-American terrorism overseas and domestically during the Nixon, Ford, and Carter administrations. Volume II chronicles the high-water mark of anti-American terrorism overseas that occurred during the Reagan administration. The litany of terrorist attacks on US targets overseas during this period is well known and unmatched in American history: 1983 suicide attack on US Embassy Beirut, 1983 suicide attack on US Marine Barracks Beirut, 1983 suicide attack on US Embassy Kuwait, 1984 suicide attack on US Embassy Beirut, 1985 assault on the TWA counter at Rome airport, 1985 hijacking of TWA 847, 1986 mid-air bombing of TWA 840, 1988 mid-air bombing of Pan Am 103, and the 1982-1988 kidnappings of 18 Americans in Lebanon. This wave of anti-American terrorist attacks demanded an appropriate response. The Reagan administration proceeded to construct the most ambitious and costly counter-terrorism program in the pre-9/11 era. Although the terrorist threat was perceived to be in decline during the George H W Bush administration, it still had to deal with the potential terrorist threat emanating from the first Gulf War in 1990-1991, two assassination attempts on the president, and the ramifications of the Pan Am 103 bombing.
BRICS countries, namely Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (known as bloc), have been working closely together for more than a decade in areas as politics, economics, culture and security. The bloc plays a crucial role in facilitating the growth of not only emerging markets and developing countries, but also the world economy as a whole. Just as importantly, it contributes significantly towards improving global governance and the welfare of those living in BRICS countries. Contributed by more than 20 experts from major think tanks in BRICS countries, the chapters in this book analyze how the BRICS countries have realized shared prosperity and achieved global prominence by cooperating with one another. In addition, the authors also look at challenges faced by the bloc, and possible solutions to those problems.
Crowdfunding is already transforming the way many entrepreneurs and enterprises around the globe think about community engagement and fundraising for various causes. This book puts forth the belief that policy makers, public servants and various governments, municipalities and regions can significantly benefit from crowdfunding through employing crowd-related mechanisms within their frameworks and using their crowd as an asset -- a crowdasset. Using real-world examples, this book explores the opportunities presented by crowdfunding and crowdfunded innovation, and how major policy makers are already using crowdfunding and crowd mechanisms to accelerate innovation, engagement and community transformation. A guide for those involved in crowdfunding, CrowdAsset brings readers through the journey of maximizing crowd impact.
Fake news is not new, and this issue poses an even greater challenge now. The speed of information has increased drastically with messages now spreading internationally within seconds online. With countless photographs, opinions, and hours of video published online every falsehoods proliferate rapidly. Readers are overwhelmed by the flood of information, but older markers of veracity (respected publications, official sources) have not kept up, nor has there been a commensurate growth in the ability to counter false or fake news. In many cases, staid publications of record such as newspapers have been eclipsed by new, visually attractive, and sometimes false, sources of information. All this has given an opportunity to those seeking to destabilize a state or to push their perspectives to the fore. Modern disinformation operations only need free Twitter or Facebook accounts or access to platforms such as WhatsApp or Telegram.DRUMS: Distortions, Rumours, Untruths, Misinformation and Smears deals with the appeal of DRUMS, the ways DRUMS is employed, and measures to counter it. Organized in three sections -- (i) Cognitive Predispositions and DRUMS, (ii) The Employment of DRUMS, and (iii) Countering DRUMS -- this book offers a holistic discussion through the different specializations and different experiences of its academic, think-tanker, or policy practitioner contributors. DRUMS: Distortions, Rumours, Untruths, Misinformation and Smears aims to serve those new the topic or subject matter specialists seeking to widen their knowledge on other elements of the issue.
Service learning presents an experiential learning opportunity, particularly for students at higher education institutions. At the same time, it allows the university to engage communities and apply its considerable resources addressing community needs. This book, Educating for Empathy: Service Learning in Public Policy Education, will introduce readers to the concept of service learning and how it can be applied to higher education. While service learning has been recognized as a useful pedagogical tool that can enhance students' learning experience, the application and practice of service learning in Singapore has been limited.The book will also provide a broad overview of service learning in the context of a service learning initiative that was conducted by the author under Nanyang Technological University (NTU)'s Public Policy & Global Affairs Programme, as well as the author's experience as NTU's inaugural Community Research Fellow. It will cover the policy, pedagogical, and socio-political aspects of service learning and include insights from students and stakeholders. In doing so, it aims to provide valuable insights into the role of service learning as a driver of civic education and grassroots volunteerism. The book will also provide both education and policy professionals a greater understanding of how their work can intersect, and provide students with a highly rewarding learning experience.
This book examines the current and future challenges facing the food and agricultural system and their implications for policymaking at the national and international level.The growth in global population and income is expected to result in increasing demand for food and agricultural raw materials, intensifying concerns over food security and increasing pressure on the planet's natural resources. Moreover, climate change -- a challenge on its own -- is likely to increase the urgency for reforms in the food and agricultural sector. As a substantial contributor to greenhouse gas emissions, the sector will need to participate in efforts to slow global warming and to adjust to the effects of climate change, while ensuring global food security and resource sustainability. These pressures define a new set of priorities for policymaking at the national and international level. They also necessitate changes in the framework of global institutions for effective governance of the food system.Global Challenges for Future Food and Agricultural Policies presents a comprehensive analysis of the inter-related policy challenges of food security, management of natural resources, climate change, and international governance. The book also offers valuable insights into options for effective policymaking with the goal of inducing positive policy changes to the food and agricultural sector.
The UN's Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) for 'Zero Hunger' has refocused attention on hunger and malnutrition as major challenges for the 21st century and as essential desired goals for human development. This volume provides key insights on how these challenges for food security can be addressed globally and in a number of countries that face these challenges most acutely.According to the World Food Summit, food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. The implication is that lack of food security would overlap with hunger -- both overt and hidden -- and undernutrition and would have spillover effects onto the health of and labor market performance of those affected by such insecurity. This range of issues have guided the choice of contributions to this volume. Several manifestations of these topics are covered for a number of countries in Asia and Africa.
"Being an island nation, the ocean is never too far from Sri Lanka. Situated right at the center of the world's busiest sea lanes of communication, the geography connects the country with the Indian Ocean, and its destiny is linked to this strategic body of water. For centuries, the Indian Ocean has been part of Sri Lanka's strategic, security, and political narratives. However, over the years, the country's involvement in the affairs of the Indian Ocean has retracted due to domestic and regional circumstances. Its consciousness of its ocean identity declined when it took an inward orientation which gave greater visibility to its South Asian identity, and its own imagination began to pivot towards the Indian hinterland. However, with the rising importance of the Indian Ocean in geopolitics, and with the end of the civil war, Sri Lanka's consciousness of its ocean identity has grown. Successive governments have formulated policies that would have paved its way to become the hub of the Indian Ocean, making the ocean the center of its economic development, maritime security, and defense relations. Amidst this backdrop, this book explores historical and contemporary perspectives on Sri Lanka's relations with the Indian Ocean"--
This book discusses lessons and challenges of metropolitan circles development and urbanization in Asia, Europe, North America, Latin America and Africa. The book examines the effects of local governance systems, central-local relations, and administrative borders on metropolitan area development. It surveys economic, social and environmental issues, with an emphasis on how interconnectivity, circular economy, and climate issues should be integrated into megaregion development planning.The chapters are selected papers from the international conference on metropolitan circles development and urbanization jointly held by the Institute of Public Policy (IPP) at the South China University of Technology and UNESCO in 2018. Contributors from the US, the UK, Japan, France, Singapore, Indonesia, Mexico, Tanzania present their questions, observations, and analyses in a narrative and descriptive style which appeal to a wide range of audience.
National Service (NS) is one of Singapore's foundational public policies. First implemented by the British in 1954, amended in 1967 to provide a means to defend a fledgling independent nation, and codified into its present form in 1970, NS is a key pillar of Singapore's defence. Its significance, however, goes beyond defence. With over 1 million male Singapore citizens and permanent residents having served NS, and consequently involving many more -- family members, friends, employers and colleagues -- in different ways, NS is deeply woven into Singapore's political and social fabric. This volume brings together a range of scholarly perspectives on NS which explore its past, present and future in four sections: The history of NS, NS in practice, debates on NS and an international perspective. Comprising chapters by individuals from varied backgrounds, National Service in Singapore offers a broad account of one of Singapore's oldest public policies.
Populists and Progressives alerts readers to dramatic changes in the ideological and political structure of America's Democratic and Republican parties roiling Washington and shaping the 2020 presidential election. America now has four distinct contentious political orientations: progressive, liberal, conservative and populist. The least well understood are the progressives, whose programs are often confused with socialism, and populists stigmatized as reactionaries. Each has its own agenda and presses programs that are incompatible with one another, auguring protracted strife and paralysis. The book carefully elaborates the substance of each movement and analyses the social, political and economic forces driving them. It assesses their staying power and prospects in the 2020 presidential election. The analysis reveals that most contemporary American political commentary is intensely partisan and relies on obsolete notions of Democrat and Republican party doctrine and rivalry, obscuring the transformation of American society, politics and economy. Populists and Progressives assists readers to dispel the fog, allowing them to judge the present danger and help in the search for consensus solutions. The book also predicts the winner of the 2020 presidential election.
This volume seeks to fill the vacuum created by the Joint Economic Committee of Congress's decision to cease publishing comprehensive assessments of Russia's performance and potential. It provides readers with authoritative descriptions of Russia's economy, military prowess and international ambitions. The volume does not settle controversies, but does provide readers with an objective basis for assessing Russia's prospects without the distortions caused by fake news and disinformation wars.
This book is devoted to the analysis of ideological turnover and its social political consequences in 36 industrialized countries. The book pursues three major objectives. Firstly, it accurately proposes novel approaches to measure the impact of party ideologies on political efficiency, which fills the gap of current research that we lack effective methods to elucidate the degree of party conflicts between the cabinet and the parliament. Secondly, it analyzes the short-term or long-term impact of political turnover on government effectiveness and economic fluctuations, which has long been deemed as a complex and difficult problem. Thirdly, it illustrates the influences of political parties' left-right ideology on social security policy and workers' strikes, and verifies whether the lag-effects exist in social movements. This book helps readers understand the political turnover and effectively respond to shifts in politics and society.
Right-wing violence is undergoing a revival on both sides of the Atlantic. In Europe, much of this violence has been a backlash against migrants and their offspring carried out by 'lone-wolves' and organized groups. In the United States, race, gender, and religious hatreds have triggered far more than 'normal' levels of violence, including a resurgence of attacks on Jews and other anti-Semitic behavior. Examining the contours of the current violence, this book traces the development of the right-wing in the decades following the end of World War II.Right-Wing Violence in the Western World Since World War II considers right-wing violence during the postwar era, from the collapse of Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy to the mid-1950s alongside the right-wing sociological and political influences inherited before WWII. This chapter is followed by an overview of the right-wing in North America and Europe from the '60s onwards into the digital age. The book concludes with a timely and balanced assessment of 'the canary in the coal-mine' for liberal democracy.
This book, Rising from the Ashes: UN Peacebuilding in Timor-Leste, provides an in-depth look into the UN's first experiment in governing and building peace in the aftermath of conflict, using East Timor as a case study. It examines how the Timorese have progressed after the UN left and the challenges that lie ahead. The book is covered in two parts: in the first part, the book examines the UN's role after it entered East Timor in 1999 as the de facto government; and in the second part, the book examines how Timor-Leste has progressed in peacebuilding after the UN's withdrawal in 2012.Rising from the Ashes: UN Peacebuilding in Timor-Leste is based on the author's first-hand experience working in the UN as it restored law and order and built a state in a country without a government, any infrastructure, or human resources. The book argues that peacebuilding is a long-term endeavor and is a work in progress in Timor-Leste, based on the good foundations laid by the UN. However, like many other developing countries, Timor-Leste has enormous challenges to address; but it also has oil resources and a young population. Its future success will depend on how its oil wealth is managed and distributed, whether it is able to bridge the urban-rural divisions in the country, provide employment for its burgeoning population, and progress economically. Last, but not least, its future success will also depend importantly, on how its leadership deals with past, namely, the continuing intra-elite divisions that are a legacy of its troubled history. They have to transcend past divisions and unite Timorese society for the future development of the country.The book ends with a set of recommendations for Timor-Leste and for the region, namely members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).
Rivalry and Cooperation in the Asia-Pacific provides a comprehensive and accessible introduction to the most important strategic and economic region in the world. Asia-Pacific is a region that is undergoing a major transformation, largely as a consequence of the rise of China and its growing rivalry with the United States. Whatever happens in the Asia-Pacific will profoundly influence global events, not just regional ones. Looking ahead, the region's future direction - and even its name - is contested and uncertain. This two-volume reference work, by one of the world's leading analysts of regional affairs, places these events in historical context and considers what they may mean for future political, economic and strategic relations. By focusing on the United States, China and the region's most significant middle powers, the book explains why and how the Asia-Pacific has become the fulcrum of international events.